Our clients call upon us for the development of models and techniques to study the impact of wind generation and solar on bulk transmission and distribution networks.

While many of the analytical procedures are well established in the power system engineering practice, the unique characteristics of wind generation bring new challenges. EnerNex personnel have in-depth knowledge of the unconventional technologies utilized in wind generation which, combined with our extensive power system analysis capabilities, allows us to assist a wide range of clients who may be facing these challenges for the first time.

Our range of technical skills enables us to work with a variety of clients, from wind turbine manufacturers to transmission service providers, in areas such as the development of appropriate models and techniques for studying the impact of wind generation on bulk transmission and distribution networks.

EnerNex projects related to wind generation modeling and interconnection are oriented around transmission and distribution systems, and focus on the electrical interactions between wind turbines and wind plants, and the electric power system. In close collaboration with turbine vendors we have developed detailed vendor-specific transient models for most of the wind turbine technologies deployed in North America.

We use the transient models developed in EMTP-RV and PSCAD as a basis for further development of dynamic models for simulation platforms such as PSLF and PSS/E.

  • Southern California Edison (SCE)
  • San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)
  • Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP)
  • U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
  • California Energy Commission (CEC)
  • California Solar Initiative (CSI)

Solar Converter and Wind Turbine Modeling
A solar converter converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical balance of system (BOS) component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection. Recent experience has shown that the harmonic behavior of modern power converters for renewable energy applications is complex and system dependent.

It has been observed in the field that interactions between grid resonances and inverter controls comprising of terminal voltage and output current feedback loops, along with filters and other control blocks, can result in harmonic distortion levels at any frequency, not only odd characteristic harmonics. EnerNex has performed harmonic studies for multiple solar PV plants, and also analogous studies with Type 4 (full scale power converters) turbine generators that have experienced power quality problems, issues with inter-harmonics due to control interactions between the turbine converter and the grid.

EnerNex projects related to wind generation modeling and interconnection are oriented around transmission and distribution systems, and focus on the electrical interactions between wind turbines and wind plants, and the electric power system.

We developed, in close collaboration with turbine vendors, detailed vendor specific transient models of most wind turbine technologies deployed in North America. We used the transient models developed in EMTP-RV and PSCAD as a basis for further development of dynamic models for simulation platforms, such as PSLF and PSS/E.

Wind and Solar Integration Studies
Wind and solar integration studies assess power quality, the effects of reverse power flows, and power conditioning and control to address harmonics and over current, voltage and frequency conditions.

EnerNex’s renewable energy projects include integration studies for wind and solar projects on transmission and distribution lines for multi-state regions, for electric utilities and for specific feeders. Our renewable projects assess the feasibility of using renewable energy in microgrids and net zero energy facilities including large data centers and Fortune 50 company campuses.

Renewable Plant Interconnection Studies
Large wind plants are complex dynamic systems, comprised of many individual wind turbines interconnected with the transmission grid through an extensive medium voltage collector network. Auxiliary systems and equipment may be employed for reactive power control and voltage regulation within the network or at the point of interface to the transmission grid. Supervisory control systems monitor and direct the operation of individual turbines and auxiliary equipment in real time. We work with wind plant developers, wind turbine manufacturers and utilities on these studies to evaluate intra-plant electrical systems within large wind plants.

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